Wang Yongquan Writings on Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan

Translated by Richard Man

Master Wang Yongquan

Richard Man, a long time taiji practitioner, with a talent for translating old text of past taiji masters making them available to English readers.

A very interesting translation that touches on and gives clarity to what is meant by internal training, the methods of training that give it the distinction of being labeled internal. the how, why and what to train

Original formatting preserved reflecting the document pages translated

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汪永泉授楊式太極拳語錄及拳照
Wang Yongquan Writings on Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan
Translated by Richard Man, 

https://www.facebook.com/groups/IMA.LiteraryTradition

Last Edit: 2013/08/05 Status: 23 out of 100+ pages completed. ONLY MINIMAL EDITING and English cleanup have been done.
Translator’s Notes: The majority of the text are words from master Wang Yongquan himself. Occasionally there are commentaries by the editor 劉金印 Liu Jin Yin. 

These are notated as such and written in italic font and prefixed by “Editor’s Notes:”. Any commentaries by the translator will be marked as such: {translator: ...}

Brief background on 汪永泉Wang Yongquan (1904­1987): a more complete background on master Wang Yonguan will be available when I translate the “front sections” (forward, and introduction) of the book. Master Wang was a student of Yang Jianhou and Yang Chengfu, the second and third generations of Yang Family. 
He also learned from his father, who was also a student of the Yang Elders. Master Wang’s specialty is the Middle Frame Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan. His students and grand students include but not limited to the famous Wei Shuren, Zhu Huai Yuan 朱懷元, and Shi Ming 石明. The PBS TV show Healing and the Mind by Bill Moyer (1995) introduced Shi Ming and the concept of Qi to a wide US audience.


GLOSSARY:
打拳 (Da Quan) ­ Fighting (with fist). Practicing martial arts including forms, push hand, and sparring etc.
功夫 (Gong Fu) ­ The skills obtained from practicing for a long term correctly. In normal usage, it can be used for skills other than martial arts.

勁 (Jin) ­ Refined force. Normally, any force gained by active training, e.g. even boxing may consider as Jin. However, internal Jin are trained differently and do not involve the active engaging of muscles. In the highest form in internal arts, Jin is developed through the movement of Yi and Qi.

練(太極)拳 (Lian Quan) ­ Practice (Tai Chi) martial arts. Usually refers to hand forms.
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盤架子 (Pan Jia Zi) ­ Practice basic form postures [ or according to Google Translate: dish rack ].
氣 (Qi) ­ A word that defies simple labeling. Calling it breath, energy or life force etc. are deficient although depending on the context, it could have those characteristics and more (including water, i.e. flowing of Qi). Qi is best to be viewed as a description of certain phenomena occurring.

In Internal Martial Arts terms, 內氣 Internal Qi has defined meanings and usage. With training, Internal Qi can be felt and the sensations can be described, but it is not a substance or some kind of thing, or even energy. For example, 氣沉丹田 “Sink Qi to Dantian” and 氣宜鼓盪 “Qi rousing like a drum vibrating” describe certain processes occurring but do not mean that some kind of “Qi” substance or even energy is being moved around.

Qi is useful to describe what’s happening but does not prescribe how it can be made to happen. Harmonizing Shen, Yi and Qi is the core practice of Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan.

To mobilize Qi, you create an empty space, by Soong and a light Yi to empty the area. The differentiation of yin and yang is what makes Qi flow.

Even cooking can have “Wok Qi” and Qi is also used in conjunction with hundreds of other words. For example, 空氣 is air. 生氣 which looks like “life Qi” is actually being angry.

請教 (Qing Jiao) ­ Ask people for advice or a lesson. It can be used as a sincere wish for advice, or as a challenge: “You think you are so great? Well, please teach me!” implying that the result would be opposite. Used commonly in martial arts movies as a fight begins.

拳架 (Quan Jia) ­ Martial arts forms.
神 (Shen) ­ Spirit as in spirited. Also mean god / spirit in general usage but usually not in martial arts unless referring to spiritualism. Harmonizing Shen, Yi and Qi is the core practice of Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan.
神明 (Shen Ming) ­ Supreme understanding. While Shen is usually translated as god or spirit, this term generally does not have any spiritual connotation. Some translators translate this as “spiritual illumination” which in this translator’s opinion, is 不失之毫塵,差以千里 (off by a few inches and end up a thousand miles away).

鬆 (Soong) ­ Can be loosely translated as being relax but not collapsed. Without understanding and being 鬆, one cannot achieve proficiency in Tai Chi Chuan.

通 (Tong) ­ Being empty and hollow, acting as a “conduit” so that things can flow through. In this
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book, an example is that your body condition being Tong, allowing Yi or Qi to move unimpeded.
無形無象 (Wu Xing Wu Xiang) ­ Formless and shapeless [ or according to Google Translate: no invisible elephant ].
意 (Yi) ­ Mindful intention. Harmonizing Shen, Yi and Qi is the core practice of Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan.

招術 (Zhao Shu) ­ martial arts techniques. Refer to my writing on “Notes on Translating Chinese.” 招 is a posture 術 is the underlying method. 只有招,沒有術 means that someone only has gotten the posture (outward appearance) but not the inner method.

上篇 - 汪永泉先生授拳語錄

Part I - Mr. Wang Yongquan’s Teaching on Martial Arts
CHAPTER ONE 總論 ­ General Introduction (一) 武德為先
(One) Martial Virtue is of Utmost Importance

編者按:武德是汪傳楊式太極拳的重要組成部分。汪永泉 老師注重武德。他的人品高尚,武藝精 湛, 堪稱德藝雙馨。他為人正直、仁厚、誠樸、敬業。他摯愛拳術,熱心教育,淡泊名利,安貧 樂道。

Editor’s note: 武德 (Wu De / Martial Virtue) is the most important component of the Yang Style Taijiquan as transmitted by master Wang. Master Wang believed in acting in accordingly with Wu De. He had a noble character, possessed great martial art skills, and known for “being virtuous and excelled in martial arts.”

 He was honest, compassionate, sincere and dedicated. He liked learning martial arts, and was enthusiastic teacher. He did not care for fame and lived a simple life.


從事太極拳事業六十幾年,培養出不少高水平的子弟,使眾多習練者受益。晚年,他口述筆錄 出版了《楊式太極拳述真》奉獻一生練拳心得,傳之於後世。他的太極拳造詣很高,卻謙稱自 己只達到了中等水平,距入化境神明階段尚有差距。

He studied Taijiquan for over 60 years, nurtured numerous top students, and benefitted many practitioners. In his later years, he dictated the “Yang Style Taijiquan True Transmission” (written by his student Wei Shuren) comprising of his insights, as a legacy to the future. 

His Tai Chi Chuan skills were very high, but he modestly said that he was only at middling level, very far from the 神明 supreme understanding level.
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對其他流派和拳師,只講特點,不論短長。他說,各種流派各有特點,不論哪種流派,練好了 都好。對來訪者,以禮相待,點到為止,不自恃藝高,給人難堪。收徒授業,以德為先。

When he talked about the other martial art styles and practitioners, he always pointed out their specialties in positive terms, and never negatively. He said, every style has their unique features and advantages, it does not matter which style, if one becomes proficient in it, then it’s good. When challengers visited, he treated them with respect and stopped without boasting his achievements and without embarrassing the others. When he took on students, he looked for virtuous characters.

教拳認真負責,循循善誘,傾其所有。試手時,發人後,常常拉住對方手臂,以防止跌倒。對 聽課遲到者,逐個給補講。他把推手稱"揉手",有加強武德的意義。

He taught wholeheartedly and did not withhold information. When he tested their hands, after Fajin, he would grab the opponent’s arm, to prevent them from falling down. If anyone had trouble understanding, he would patiently explained again. He called Pushing Hand 推手 as “Rubbing Hand / 揉手”, emphasizing its Wu De quality.

學武術首先要有武德。武德為先。
學拳不求名利。
學拳就是行道。道是一刻也不能離開的。如果能離開的,那就不是道。

To learn martial art, you must have Wu De. Wu De is of utmost importance.
Martial art is not about getting fame or fortune.

To learn martial art, is to live in the Dao (道, “the Way”). If you separate from the Dao, then you will lose the Way.

(二) 老師"訪"學生要三年,學生"訪"老師要三年

(Two) The Teacher Needs to “Study” The Student for Three Years; The Student Needs to “Visit” the Teacher for Three Years.

要學拳,必須選擇好的教拳人。看他對太極拳功夫是否有全面的理解,教練的方法是否正確, 教學態度是否良好,對學員是否負責, 等等。

To learn martial arts, you must select a teacher carefully. He or she must have a complete understanding of Taijiquan, can teach correctly, has a good attitude, and willing to take care and work with the students.

老師"訪"(考察)學生(需)要三年;學生"訪"老師要三年。對對方的人品武德等各方面有了了解以後 ,再考慮拜師、收徒。

Therefore, a teacher needs to study a prospective student for 3 years, and the student needs to visit the teacher for 3 years. 
After they can see each other’s personalities and their Wu De (martial virtue), they can then formalize the 
teacher­ student relationship.
(三)教拳先教武德


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(Three) Before Teaching Martial Arts, Teach Wu De

教育年青人練太極拳,第一,要把五種道德講通;第二,要把火性練化;第三,要把後天之力練 柔;第四,要把傲性去掉;第五,要把好鬥之心祛除。教練人和學生首先要解決這些問題,然後再 傳拳術。在以後教拳過程中,還要反复講授上述內容。

Before teaching someone Taijiquan: 1) explain the 5 kinds of Dao and De; 2) work to eliminate rash behaviors or anger issues; 3) soften any brute strength; 4) pride and ego must be let go; 5) competitive and combative feelings must be removed as well. The teacher and student must first work through these issues, before martial arts are taught. During the training, these points should be reviewed from time to time.

{ Translator: the only reference to 5 kinds of Wu and De I could find is the Buddhist one: 

一、不 殺生而仁愛;二、不偷盜而重義;三、不邪淫而有禮;四、不妄語而誠信;五、不飲酒而正 智。}
(四) 虛心向前輩、同輩、晚輩請教

(Four) Sincerely asks the Elders, Your Equals, and Later Students for Advice and Critiques

要虛心向前輩及取得了正確進展的同輩和晚輩請教,反复練習。切忌從拳論中片面摘出與自己 想法相近的只言片語,一意孤行地傻練,這樣做必出偏差,輕則功夫不能得到正確發展,重則 損傷身體。

With sincerity and modesty, you should ask the Elders, your Equals and even later students who have gotten the correct transmission for advice and critiques. 

You must avoid thinking that you have the same understanding of the words as the ones written in the Classics and you should avoid practicing alone foolishly. Otherwise, you may practice incorrectly, and your Gong Fu will not develop correctly and might do your body harm.

(五) 揉手要有正確的目的

(Five) “Rubbing Hand” (Push Hand) Must Be Done With Correct Intent

練習揉手要有正確的目的。揉手又名推手。揉手的目的是為了校正練習者對拳術理論不正確的 理解,發現並糾正學習拳架時的不正確的練法,以及不正確的揉手方法,避免出現偏差而走入 吱途。有些人對揉手沒有正確的理解,認為揉手只是為了一爭高下,因而在練習時,拳友之間 往往容易產生誤會和摩擦,甚至傷害身體。這種偏差是由於缺少教養或違反武德,而在揉手中 摻雜了非太極拳的拆手、散打,以及反關節擒拿等招術,使揉手形成了較力的緣故。

Practicing “Rubbing Hand” must be done with correct intent. Rubbing Hand is commonly known as Push Hand. The purpose of Rubbing Hand is for the practitioners to validate their understanding of the martial art principles. 

If a student discovers that they do not understand or practice correctly, and their rubbing hand is not done correctly, then they can avoid continuing down the incorrect path. 

Some people misunderstand the intent of Rubbing Hand, and think that it’s for testing who is better. When practicing with friends, this generates conflicts and
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misunderstanding, and sometimes even cause physical injuries. These indicate a deficiency in their education and is the opposite of Wu De. They add to the soft hands other arts’ fighting hands, sanshou, and different joint locking (chin na) techniques {translator: Tai Chi ‘Chin Na’ works differently }, and changed the soft hands into a strength testing process.

不要誤認為揉手就是專門學技擊友人的,一味追求技擊效果。這種錯誤理解和意圖,有可能造 成身體的宿瘓。對此,青少年練習者應當特別注意。

You must not think that Rubbing Hand is the end result of the practice. If you practice that way, that’s incorrect understanding, and would cause harm to your body. Students must be careful of this point.

練習揉手主要是為了"懂勁兒"為了練成真正的太極功夫,而不是為了爭強好勝,以致不擇手 段。我的老師楊澄甫說,揉手時,要用太極拳的功夫贏人,才能讓對方口服心服。

The prime reason for practicing Rubbing Hand is to “Understand Jin” and learn the true Tai Chi Gong Fu, and not to see who is stronger or who would win, even using unsportsman like techniques or with bad intention. My teacher Yang Chengfu said, “If you win over your opponent using true Tai Chi Chuan Gong Fu at Rubbing Hand, then you will get their respect from their heart and mouth.” {translator: that is, otherwise even if you win, then they fear you, but may not respect you. }

(六) 楊式末極拳的特點 ­­ 舒服、得意、大方。

(Six) The Characteristics of Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan are Comfortable,

 得意 Pleasant, and 大方 Expansive.
編者按:編者的學拳記錄中有兩處記有汪永泉老師說: "楊式太極拳的特點是舒服、得意、大方。" 他在整個授拳過程中,都貫穿著楊式太極拳的特點和要求。因講的問題不同,強調的重點不同 ,語句、用詞有所不同。但總的精神是一致的。他常用的詞有:自然、舒服、得意、大方、開展 ,以及舒展、舒適、合適、美觀、輕靈、圓活......等等。每次用的字數多少也不一,有時四個 字,有時六個字、八個字。編者認為,可以概括為自然、舒服、得意、大方。汪傳楊式太極拳 的特點,再加輕靈二字。

Editor’s Note: according to my notes there are two places where Wang Yongquan Laoshi said, “A characteristic of Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan is comfortable, 得意 / pleasant, and expansive.” 

He said that when one practices martial art, one must maintain the characteristics of Yang Style Tai Chi. Since the questions were asked under different circumstances, he would emphasize different points. Even though the words may be different, the meanings are the same. 

He often used the words: natural, comfortable, engaged, expansive, 開展 ‘show off’ { translator: ‘show off’ here does not mean the negative term, but the quality of demonstrating}, but sometimes also stretch and open, comfortable, harmonious, beautiful, graceful, lively and agile, round... etc. { translator: many adjectives denoting these concepts }. 

He would use different set of characteristics different times, sometimes it’s 4 set of words, sometimes 6 and sometimes 8. I (the editor) think that the 4 adjectives: natural, comfortable, 得意 pleasant, expansive are the most general ones. 

To add to them 輕靈 / Qing Ling / Light and Agile, are the most important characteristics of the Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan as transmitted by master Wang.
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楊式太極拳的特點是舒服、得意、大方。
楊式太極拳拳術的基本特點是自然、柔和、優美。
練拳要道法自然。
聽其自然、任其自然。

The characteristics of Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan are comfortable, 得意 pleasant, 大方expansive. The fundamental characteristics of the forms are natural, soft and harmonious, graceful and beautiful.
When you practice, it must be natural.
Observe (listen), and let it unfolds naturally.

練拳不能"揪著心"、"拿著勁"、"端著架子"、周身僵滯、不自然。 練拳不能被架子束縛住,不要太拘緊。 我的老師楊澄甫說:開,要舒服;合,要舒服。 起點要舒服,運行要舒服,終點要舒服,變換要舒服。 練拳要自己練著舒服,別人看看也舒服。

When practicing, don’t think too much, or try to “hold the jin” or "端著 postures,” these lead to awkward and unnatural movements.

When practicing, don’t be so rigidly bounded by the postures.

My teacher, Yang Chengfu said, When you Open, you must be comfortable; when you Close, you must also be comfortable. { translator: all Tai Chi Chuan movements are either opening or closing }

Starting should be comfortable, moving should be comfortable, stopping and resting should be comfortable, transitioning must also be comfortable.

When you practice, you should feel comfortable, and people watching you should also feel comfortable.

要全身無一處僵滯,無一處別才扭、不得勁。
練拳要全身放鬆、神舒,心情放鬆,悠然自得,自我欣
賞,自得其樂,安逸、得意、心里美滋滋的,面帶笑容。
練拳要自己感到心里美,別人看著也美。

The body must not be stiff, nor twisted, nor rigid.
Your entire body must be 鬆 (Soong / ‘relaxed’), your 神 (Shen / spirit) restful, your mind is tranquil and relaxed. Leisurely and unhurried.

Enjoy the moment, feel confident, bring out your smile.
If you feel graceful and beauty within, other people will also see the gracefulness.

練拳要舒服大方。練拳要先求開展,後求緊湊。
練拳要輕靈圓沽,不要笨拙。 練拳如蠶吐絲,連綿不斷,有纏繞勁兒,不能中斷、停頓、猛變換。

When practicing, you should feel comfortable, big and open. You must act as if you are demonstrating (開展 / ‘show off’), and not tight and compacted.

It should be light, agile, round, quick, and not clumsy.
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Practice should be like a silkworm spitting silk, continuous without break. When reeling jin, do not break, or stopping, or make sudden changes.

練拳如像在水里運行,下半身在水里,腰在水面,上半身在水上,有漂浮感。手在空氣中運行 ,沒有阻力。練拳如"手劃拉空氣"。

Practicing forms should feel like walking in water. The lower body under the water, the waist on the water line, the upper body outside of the water, feeling the buoyancy. The hands moving in the air without resistance. As if “drawing in the air.”

練拳要穩、慢、勻。

The movements should be steady, slow and uniform.

(七) 都必須有一定的理論作指導

You Must Have The Correct Theory As A Guide

無論學哪一種拳術,都必須有一定的理論作指導,不能埋頭瞎練。 在練習固定的拳架、招式時,必須遵循一定的理論,才能練出功夫。

Regardless which martial arts you practice, you must have a correct theory to guide you, and not practice blindly.
When practicing a form, the moves must be done according to the theory, then your Gong Fu will improve.

在練習太極拳的過程中,理論和實踐互相促進、交互提高。在一定的理論指導下練習拳架,感 到功夫有了增長,實踐長了一點。進而不知如何繼續提高,再結合實踐學習理論,感到明白了 一些,理論提高了一點,再去對照理論去實踐。如此循壞往復,交互提高,不斷前進。

In your journey in learning Tai Chi Chuan, understanding the theory and philosophy and practicing go together, each benefits the other. Using the theory as a guide to your practice, as you see your Gong Fu improving, you would practice even more. When you practice and get better, you may feel that your understanding of the theory improves and increase your knowledge. The mutual feedback loops help you to improve continuously.

(八) 路子正,方法對
Correct Forms, Correct Methods
學拳要有正確的指導思想。這樣才能路子正、方法對、見成效。這樣看起來好像慢,實際上快 ,能得到真功夫。有的路子、方法,也許看起來一時能見點成效,但有局限性,到了一定程度 ,就難以進步了。這樣實際上是慢。

When learning you must have the correct theory. If you practice the forms correctly, with the correct methods, then you will achieve success. Sometimes it seems that it is a slow process, but actually you gain true skills quickly.

 There are some forms and methods that look like you can gain proficiency quickly, but it has limits. Once you reach certain level, it is hard to progress beyond it. This is actually the slow path.
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老師是給學生指路的。學生走岔了路,老師要幫助他歸正路。路得學拳的人自己走,功夫得自 己練。

Teacher points out the way to the students. When a student goes down the wrong path, the teacher needs to help the student to return to the correct path. However, the student must walk the path himself, and the only way to gain Gong Fu is by practicing.

(九)楊式太極拳屬內家拳­注重內勁

Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan Is Neijia Chuan (Internal Martial Art) ­ Pay Attention to Neijin

編者按: "楊式太極拳屬內家拳",這是汪永泉授拳的中心指導思想,這個思想貫穿在整個練拳、 教拳的過程中,從理論到實踐 ­­ 每個環節、每招每勢。他經常強調這個思想,是由於對楊式太 極拳、內家拳屬性的透徹的領悟; 對幾十年練拳、教拳的經驗的深刻總結; 對社會上學、練楊式 太極拳出現的些偏差深深的憂慮。有些人在理論上和口頭上都承認楊式太極拳屬於內家拳,但 在具體實踐中卻往往忽視甚至忘記了這點,背離了太極拳的根本屬性。汪老師指出,有些人打 拳、教拳"只
講外,不講內"的一些現象,應引起注意深思。

Editor Note: “Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan Is Neijia Chuan”, is a central guiding thesis from Wang Yongquan. This principle should be the guide whenever you practice and whenever you teach. From theory to practice ­ on every transitions, every move all the time (, it’s about paying attention to Neijin). 

He emphasized this thesis because of his full understanding that Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan belongs to the class of Neijia Chuan is based on his many decades of experience practicing, teaching and studying the theory; he was deeply concerned that the practitioners have misunderstood. 

There are people who talk about and agree that Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan belongs to Neijia Chuan, but their practices and movements do not adhere to this idea, deviating from Tai Chi Chuan’s root principles. Teacher Wang pointed out, some people when they do martial art and when they teach, they show that they are really “speaking about external (martial art), and not internal”, you must keep this in mind.

要學好、練好汪傳楊式太極拳,需要緊緊抓住它的內家拳的屬性,深入領會,貫徹始終。

Therefore, in order to practice Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan as transmitted by master Wang, you must closely follow Neijia Chuan properly, and you must understand this fully and apply it consistently.

學一種拳術,跟一個老師學拳,都先要了解其特點,抓住特點,才能學得好,學得快。

When you learn a martial art and follow a teacher, you must find out and understand the special characteristics of the art, then you can learn well, and improve fast.

楊式太極拳屬內家拳,注重內功。

Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan belongs to Neijia Chuan, the emphasis is on Nei Gong (Internal Gong Fu).

學太極拳不要夾雜非內家拳的練法。不是說其他流派拳不好,無論什麼拳練好了都好。但各家
各派有各自的特點,有各自的練法。把不同的練法夾雜起來學,是學不好拳的。
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When you learn Tai Chi Chuan, do not mix it with non­Neijia Chuan practice. This is not to say that the other martial arts is no good. Regardless which martial arts, if you practice well, that it is good. However, each martial art has their own features and their own practicing methods. If you mix up different schools’ methods, you will not learn well.

公園裡有人教練楊式太極拳,只講外,不講內;只講招,不講術,失去楊式太極拳內家拳的特
點。

In the parks, there are people who teach Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan, they only speak about the external, and not the internal; they only talk about the postures and movements, but not the inner methods, losing the special features of Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan that makes it a Neijia Chuan.

有些人忽略了內功,只追求外形,把太極拳練走了樣。

People who forget about the Nei Gong, and only chase the external forms, do not practice the right Tai Chi Chuan.

(十)內勁是神意氣的化合,不是神意氣的集中

(Ten) Neijin Is Harmonizing Shen Yi Qi, and Not Concentrating Shen Yi Qi

編者按:汪永泉老師對內勁兒的本質及其和力的區別作了專門講述。這是非常重要的。有些人沒 有弄清楚,誤把力當成勁兒,走入歧途。

Editor: Teacher Wang Yongquan said that there are fundamental differences between Neijin (內 勁/ internal refined force) and other practices. This is a very important point. Some people do not make the distinction clear, and confuse force as Jin, going down the wrong path.

內勁兒和力是兩碼事(不同的事物)。

Neijin and Li (force) are two different things.

內勁兒即太極勁兒,是神、意、氣的化合,不是神、意、氣的集中。

Neijin, or in this case, Tai Chi Jin, comes from harmonizing Shen, Yi, and Qi (神、意、氣, ‘spirit’, mind­intent, and Qi), and not from concentrating Shen, Yi, and Qi.

一般理解,所謂勁兒,是把本身的神、意、氣集中到一點上,再把這個點運用到某個姿勢上
去。經過長期的鍛煉以後,就會逐漸擴大增長起來,變成一種力。這種力是經過鍛煉取得的,
是後天之拙力。這種力形式大、動量滯、變換遲、動的去路直,在技擊方面用起來,因身形動
作大,運動量較強,因此影響內氣的波動,易於浮躁。這近於長拳的練法和要求。

One theory to develop Jin (refined force) is to concentrate Shen, Yi and Qi in one point, and then use this point to drive the movements. After a long time of practice, the movements get bigger and carry a powerful force. Since this force is from diligent practice, it’s called the 後天 (After Heaven) "awkward" force. 

The force is powerful, strong and heavy, react and change slowly, done with straight and direct movements. 

When you perform martial movements, because the forms and movements are large, you exercise more vigorously. This effects your Qi to move roughly, making it easy to be restless. 

This is the training methods and requirements of the “Long Fist” (translator: i.e. external martial arts).
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初練太極拳的人覺得太極拳的練法與上面的練法相似,其實不然。如果按照太極拳的理論要求
,經過一段時間的鍛煉,逐漸把理論與姿勢結合起來,就會很明顯地感覺出來,上面的練法和
要求是與太極拳不同的。練習太極拳的要求,是把本身的神、意、氣化合歸一,融合在一起,
形成一種輕靈圓活之勁兒。這種勁兒是以氣、意混之為主。它的本質是氣,對它的要求是空、
虛、散,而不是集聚的。這就是太極勁兒,又叫做先天勁兒。

When a person first learns Tai Chi Chuan, they may think that Tai Chi Chuan is practiced the same way as described above, but that is not true. If they follow the requirements of the Tai Chi Chuan theory, after a period of training, combining their understanding of the theory and the form practices, they would begin to understand that the above written methods are not the same as those of the Tai Chi Chuan.

 Tai Chi Chuan requires that harmonizing Shen, Yi, and Qi into one, acting together, and become a Jin (refined force) that is light, agile, round and lively. 

This type of Jin comes from the mixing of Qi and Yi. Its nature is Qi, and requires Empty, “Transparent,” and “dispersed”, and not gathered. This is Tai Chi Jin, also known as 先天(“Pre Heaven”) Jin.

這種勁兒與姿勢的關係,是利用身形手勢,給這種勁兒開出去路,指出方向,使它能自然暢通
,輸出無阻。這種用法只是在應敵時一現用之,切勿在練拳時隨意輸散,以免致傷身體,影響
養生。在運用時不要把它直接貫穿到某個姿勢上去,而產生勁端。否則在應敵時遇到強力就會
使內氣返回本身,致傷身體。

Relating this type of Jin to your movement: when you move, you let the Jin to go out, directing its path, allowing it to flow out unimpeded. You should only project the Jin out this way when you are going against an enemy, and not randomly during practice, to avoid affecting your health and injuring your body. When practicing, do not hold the Jin in your body, otherwise the Jin is stopped and trapped. 

If holding the jin in your body and if you encounter an enemy with strong force, their force will bounce your Qi back to your body and cause injuries.

(十一)練拳主要是煉神、意、氣

(Eleven) Practicing Martial Art Is About Refining Shen, Yi and Qi

內功是神、意、氣的化合。神、意、氣是結合在一起的,神到、意到、氣到。
練拳主要是煉神、意、氣。
盤架子是神、意、氣的運行。明了這點,才知道應該如何盤架子。
神、意、氣運行走虛。

Neijin (internal gong) is harmonizing Shen, Yi, and Qi (神、意、氣, ‘spirit’, mind intent and Qi). When the Shen, Yi and Qi are harmonized together, when Shen is expressed, so would Yi and Qi.
The main point of practicing martial art is to refine Shen, Yi and Qi.

The form is about moving Shen, Yi, and Qi. You have to understand this point, before you can learn how to do the form.
Shen, Yi and Qi move where it is empty and insubstantial.
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1. 神,指精神
1. Shen, meaning Spirit (in the sense of “being spirited”), Vitality, Awareness, and Mindfulness

神為帥。練拳要提起精神。精神不能萎靡不振。

Shen is the “leader.” When you practice, you must raise your awareness and be mindful. You must not be lethargic or unfocused.

精神要集中,不能渙散。

You must gather your Shen / focus, and not let it wander.

要神舒,要心情放鬆,不能緊張。

You must feel comfortable, let go of your worry, and not be tense and agitated.

神體現在眼神上:神聚於眼,目光四射,炯炯有神,成而不猛。

Your Shen is expressed and gathered in your eyes. Your eyes focus with intention, concentration but not as if you are angry.

眼睛一般平視,眼神要和動作主要手的方向保持一致。

Your eyes should focus levelly (i.e. do not move them around independently). Your eye focus and movements must be together and synchronized.

眼神不能注視、凝視,只是"瞧著點兒"。

You should not stare intensively, just “lightly focused.”

養生和技擊的練法,對眼神的要求不同。養生練法要求神內含,蓄而不露;技擊練法要求眼神看 得平遠,有放、有收。不能只放不收。否則要傷均氣。

Practicing for health and fighting are different, and have different requirements for raising your Shen to your eyes. For health you want to keep the Shen inside, focus inwardly and not showing it; for fighting, your eyes should focus far. Sometimes focusing, sometimes more reserved. 

It cannot be only focusing and not bring the focus back. Otherwise, it will harm your Qi.

2. 意,指意念

2. Yi, meaning Mind Intent

意念要具。意念不能過重,過重則滯。

Your mind­ intent is a tool. It cannot be too “heavy” (i.e. too much intention). Too much and it becomes stagnant.

又有意,又無意,有意無意之間是真意。

You can be very mindful, or without any intention at all. Between these states of very focused to being unaware is the true state of mindfulness.
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用意不用力,用意則通;用力則意氣受阻,不通。

Use Yi and not force. Use Yi and your body can act as a 通 conduit; use force and you will cause the blockage to your Yi and Qi.

3 . 氣,指內氣、元氣、先天之氣,不是指空氣

3. Qi, refers to internal Qi, the Primordial Qi, the Qi from pre Heaven, and not air or breath.

要培養內氣,使內氣充實。松、散、圓能涵養內氣。

You need to nourish your internal Qi, thus increasing it. Being Soong (“relaxed”), “dispersed”, “rounded” conserve and nourish your internal Qi.

意、氣運行要舒緩自如,通暢順達。不能憋,要找出路舒散。

Let your Yi and Qi move freely, with no restriction or stoppage. Let it flow out with ease.
意氣運行要連綿不斷,不能驟停、中斷。

Moving Yi and Qi must be continuous without break. Do not pause or stop.
(十二)意氣為君,骨肉為臣

Yi and Qi are the most important (君 ­ Emperor), bones and muscles are secondary (臣 ­ minister)
內指內氣;外指外形動作:姿勢、舉架。外形動作的一舉一動都和內氣分不開,必須有內氣做後 援;內氣通過外形動作得以通暢運行。

Internal means Internal Qi; external means external movements: postures and the whole form. Each and every move of the external movements must be coordinated with the internal Qi. If the internal Qi permeates the external movements, then the movements will be smooth.

沒有內氣供給的外形動作叫"妄動"那隻是掄胳臂、踢臂,不是打太極拳。

If there is no internal Qi behind the external movements, then it is called "妄動" (“reckless movements”). They are simply arm waving and hitting, and not Tai Chi Chuan.

"意氣為君,骨肉為臣"。意氣和骨肉,不是半斤八兩(過去的秤16 兩為一斤) ,不是"平起平坐"的 關係。意氣是統治者、領導者、支配者;骨肉是被統治者、領導者、被支配者。

Yi and Qi are the most important (君 ­ Emperor), bones and muscles are secondary (臣 ­ minister). Yi, Qi and bones and muscles do not have the same roles, and do not have equal relationship. Yi and Qi are the ruler, leader, and commander. The bones and muscles listen to the ruler and leader, and follow the commands. 

{ Translator: In Chinese, an emperor gives the command, the ministers carries out the task. The emperor must trust the ministers and not micromanage, and the ministers must not do outside of the emperor's wishes. }

這種關係必須明確,不能含糊,史不能顛倒過來。"內不動,外不發。"內氣催動外形動作,不 能外形拽內氣的供給。
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You must understand this relationship clearly, and do not reverse the roles. “If the Internal does not move, then the External does not show.” The Internal Qi activates the External, and not the External drives the Internal Qi.

練拳先要意氣放鬆,舒適下沉。姿勢要動,必須內氣先動。內氣舒散到全身"氣遍全身不稍滯" ,貫通到手腳,得到舒適自如,再動姿勢。

To practice, you must first let your Yi and Qi be Soong (放鬆 “relaxed”). Comfortable and sinking. If you want to move, the Internal Qi must move first. 

Let your Internal Qi comfortably spread throughout your body such that “Qi permeates the body without break”, linking through to your hands and feet, feeling natural and comfortable, then you can move.

(十三)注重"養",避免"傷"

(Thirteen) Focusing on “Nourishing,” and avoid “doing harm.”

編者:按"養"和"傷"是指內氣的培養和損傷。培養、增強內氣無論對練養生,還是對練技擊來說, 都是最根本的問題。練拳過程中,幾乎處處都存在"養"和"傷"的問題。汪永泉老師強調,要弄清 楚怎樣練能"養",怎樣練則"傷",要注重"養"避免"傷"。否則,不但達不到目的,還可能有損身 體健康。

Editor’s Note: “nourishing” and “doing harm” refers to nourishing and harming the Internal Qi. Regardless you are practicing for health or practicing for fighting, whether something nourishes and increases the Qi or harming it is a fundamental question you should ask.

 Wang Yongquan teacher taught that you must be clear what can nourish and what can do harm and that you should focus on nourishing and avoid doing harm. Otherwise, not only will you not reach your goal, it may affect your health.

汪老師在練拳、教拳乃至整個生活中都注重"養",防止"傷"。他每天4點多鐘起床,盟洗以後, 吃點茶點,休息一會兒即開始練拳,他說空腹練拳要"傷"。他有個徒弟,經常不吃早點,空著 肚子到公園去揉手,一直到中午才回家吃午飯。汪老師多次批評和告誡說"這樣下去要'傷'。"汪 老師在日常生活中也在"練功"。無論工作、學習、休息,無論坐、臥、行、走,都自然地體現 著太極拳的要求。他還經常練一種"意功"。心想體內有個小氣球,按照經絡六位運行,有時感 覺氣球受阻了,退回來再過去。

Wang Laoshi practiced, taught and lived by focusing on nourishing and avoided doing harm. He woke up at 4AM every day, after washing up, he would drink tea and eat something light. After resting a bit he would start practicing. He said practicing with an empty stomach is doing harm. 

He had a student that would not eat breakfast, but practiced push hand with an empty stomach until lunch time. Wang Laoshi admonished him many times that he was causing harm. 

For Wang Laoshi, daily actions were also “practicing (martial art)”. Whether he was working, learning, resting, whether he was sitting, lying down, walking, running, everything naturally followed the Tai Chi Chuan requirements.

最重要的是他經常保持著心平氣和的心態。汪老師到了瑩瑩之年,仍然身體健康。本書中刊登
page 15

的拳照是他在70 多歲時拍的,生活照是在80 歲時照的,從中可見他身體健康的良好狀態。他 鶴髮童顏、神采奕奕,耳聰目明,兩眼炯炯有神,看書看報從不戴花鏡。試手發人,能把人擊 出兩三米以外。教拳工作一直堅持到他去世前20多天。

Most importantly, he maintained a peaceful heart and calm demeanor. When Wang Laoshi was old, he was still very healthy. The photos of him demonstrating in this book were taken when he was in his 70s. When you look at photos of him in his 80s, he still looked very healthy. 

His hair white but with a youthful face, he was alerted, with good hearing and eyesight. The eyes full of energy, he read newspaper without glasses. When he Fajin, he could still bounce people 20--­30 feet away. He continued to teach until just days before he passed away.

注重"養",防止"傷"是汪傳楊式太極拳的一個特點。

Remember that to focus on nourishing and avoid doing harm are major characteristics of Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan as transmitted by Wang Laoshi.

練拳要弄清楚什麼是"養" (內氣) ,什麼是"傷" (內氣) ;怎樣練能"養"怎樣練則"傷"。

When practicing martial art, it must be clear what can “nourishes” (the Internal Qi), and what is “doing harm” (to the Internal Qi); Then how to practice to “nourish” and how to avoid practice that causes “harm:”

練拳要七分養,三分練。

Practicing is 70% to nourish, and 30% to exercise and improve.

要以意行氣,以氣運身。用意則能"養"用力則"傷"。

Use Yi to move Qi, use Qi to move your body. Use Yi nourishes and use force causes harm.

練拳要以內氣支配姿勢,不要以姿勢拽內氣。這樣不僅鍛煉增強了筋、骨、皮,同時也培養、 充實了內氣。對於"養"很有益處。

When practicing, use Internal Qi to move to different postures, and not using the postural movements to move your Qi. In addition to strengthen your muscles, bones and skin, this will also nourish and increase your Internal Qi. This is the benefits of “nourishment.”

在姿勢配合內氣開合時,注意不要因姿勢的開合使內氣波動太大。在任何情況下,要始終保持 內氣的舒暢、自然、開合自如。

When you open and close { translator: Tai Chi Chuan is said to be a sequence of opening and closing } in your movements, ensure that the opening and closing do not cause the Internal Qi to be agitated. Under all circumstances, the Internal Qi must maintain a state of comfort, feel natural, and the opening and closing movements flow freely.

要動靜相宜,陰陽相濟,才能"養"。在運動中雖動猶靜,靜猶動,總要舒服自然。

With effortless movement, Yin and Yang in harmony, then it “nourishes.” When movements contain stillness in motion, and motion in stillness, then it will be comfortable and natural.

練知己之功,要求:松、散、通、空,培養內氣,全身透空,能夠百病不生,延年益壽。
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真正做到完全鬆了,就能"養"就能"有" (內勁兒)。

To gain the Gong Fu of “understanding yourself” {translator: explained later}, the requirements are: Soong (“relaxed”), “dispersed”, “transparent”, empty, nourishing the Internal Qi, the body feels as empty, strengthening the immune system (百病不生 “hundred disease will not be borne”) Longevity is possible. 
When you achieve Soong in everywhere, that you are nourishing your Qi, and can be said tha “you have it” (Internal Jin).

松圓就能"養"。

To Soong and be “round” can “nourish.”

內氣不能憋,要散,散成空虛的氣球

Do not hold back the Internal Qi. Let it dispersed, like an empty balloon.

通: 養生練法是神、意、氣內舍,不外洩。意氣只通到手心、腳心,不從手指通出體外。技擊的 練法是神、意、氣從手指通出一尺到三尺,注意不能只通出,不收回,必須要收回到體內,否 則就"傷"。要把通出去的內氣畫個孤,沿原路收回體內,再畫弧通出體外,循環往復,這樣內 氣、外氣交換,則能"養"。但功力不高的,往往收不回來,打完拳感到心裡空蕩盪,疲倦乏力 ,這是"傷"的表現。到了練拳的高級階段,無論養生和技擊練法,內外氣交換,都有利於養。

 Casting as if a Conduit: the method to nourish life is to internally harmonize Shen, Yi, and Qi and not let them “leak” out. Yi and Qi should move to the center of the hands and feet, but not follow the fingers to go out the body. When practicing for fighting, the Shen, Yi, and Qi should project from the fingers one to three feet . 

Pay attention not to “project only, and not withdraw.” You must withdraw Qi back into the body, otherwise it will do “harm.” Draw an arc from the projected Internal Qi, and return to the body via the same path. Then once again draw an arc to project them out, continue the process repeatedly. 

This allows the Internal Qi and external Qi to exchange, this is “nourishing.” However, if your Gong Fu is not high enough and cannot withdraw them back, after you finish, you may an emptiness inside (your “heart”). You feel exhausted and tired. This is an indication of “harm” being done.

 When you practice and achieve a high level, regardless whether you are practicing for health or fighting, exchanging Internal and External Qi, allow nourishing to happen.

眼神的放和收,也關係到"養"和"傷" 。技擊練法要把眼神放遠,但是一定要收回,有放有收。只 放不收,則要"傷"。養生練法,眼神內斂,內視丹田或平視,視而不見,眼神可不必跟著手的 動作走,這樣有利於"養"

The eye focus (“Shen”) being far or inward looking, can also “nourish” or “do harm”. When practicing for fighting, look far, but also must look inward. If the eyes only focus far and not sometimes inwardly, it will “do harm”. 

When you are practicing for health, keep your eye focus inward, as if looking at your Dantian or look out levelly. Look but not see {translator: i.e. half focus}. Do not follow your hands’ movements, then it will “nourish.”

每個姿勢在運行時都要不即不離,不追、不貪、不過,不要超過自己的氣圈範圍,不要勉強做 自己體能難以達到的姿勢要求,否則要"傷"。運動姿勢以舒服、自然為要,以利於"養"。

Each posture in your movement must be not be too compact nor not too far, do not chase, do
page 17

not be greedy, do not cross. Do not go beyond the boundary of your Qi Ring. Do not overextend your body’s limit to do a posture. Otherwise, it will do “harm.” Movements and postures must be comfortable, feeling natural, these will “nourish.”

(十四) 性命雙修

Rehabilitating Life and Vitality
{Translator: Chinese uses the two words 性命 to mean “life.” When split up to the two component words,性 (sheng) refers to the essence and nature of living one’s life and 命 (ming) is the physical aspect of being alive and the body. As a shorthand, I will use “life” for 性 (sheng) and “vitality” for 命 (ming).}

練拳是性命雙修的功夫。修命:養生;修性:技擊。

Practicing martial art is a Gong Fu that can rehabilitate your life and vitality. Rehabilitate your life: by improving your health; restoring your vitality: improving your martial ability.

練拳不外乎陰陽、虛實、開合而已。不外乎動、靜。 "動中求靜,靜猶動" "久動必傷,久靜必餒 "。

Practicing does not stop with understanding Yin and Yang, empty and heavy, open and closing. It does not stop with movements, and stillness. “Look for stillness in motion, still yet moving” and “too much movements can hurt the heart, too much stillness and the heart starves.”

修命:所謂靜者,即鍛煉時,思想上要保持平靜,專心致志,不想其他,精神統一於此,消除雜 念,封閉耳音,不受外界干擾,保持安靜、平衡、坦然、自在,此謂之修命。

Restoring Vitality: To maintain Stillness (靜, or tranquility) when practicing, your mind should be calm and quiet, concentrated, without extraneous thoughts. Focus the “here and now”, not thinking about other things. “Close your ears” to non­ related sound and not be bothered by external stimuli. Maintaining tranquility, balance and calm, natural ­ this is known as restoring life.

修(養)性:動是人生之必要。大部分人以技擊為目標。把技擊的姿勢與招術學精通後,知而不用 謂之修(養)性。

Rehabilitating (and nourishing) Life: movement is part of being alive. Some people have the goal of sparring. By becoming proficient in martial art’s postures and techniques, your life (性 / Sheng) will be restored (and nourished).

修性與修命要平衡。練習拳架,日久自然有很大收穫,就是偏重於修命了。總之要性命雙修, 保持平衡為要。

Rehabilitating life and restoring vitality must be done in a balanced way. When practicing martial art, you will naturally gain good results, typically favoring restoring vitality (命 ming). You must remember to help both aspects and maintain a balanced approach.
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(十五) 追求無的境界

Pursuing the State of Nothingness

盤架子,無論是養生練法還是才技主擊練法,都要追求一種"無"的境界。要什麼都沒有,思想 上不追求什麼。只是松、散、圓,沒有目標,沒有對象。毫無迎敵之意。練得什麼都沒有"全身 透空" "周身合適"。

In form practices, regardless wether it is for health or for fighting, the aim is to achieve “nothingness.” With nothing to want, and no goal to pursue. Just look to be Soong (relaxed), “dispersed”, and round. No goals and no objectives. Do not hold the idea of defeating an enemy. Practice such that “the body is as if ‘porous’ and empty” and “whole body in comfort”.

盤架子時不能想著、做著這是棚、這是捋、這是擠、這是按,棚怎樣變成捋......。盤架子只要 求鬆散著,空、虛、散。

In form practices, do not think: this is Peng, this is Tsai, this is Ji, this is An {translator: Peng Tsai, Ji, An are the fundamental Jin in Tai Chi Chuan}, or how does Peng become Tsai.... In form practices, only try to attain Soong, empty, transparent, and “dispersed.”

練拳到了高級階段,棚、捋、擠、按皆非似,無形無象,全身透空。

At the highest level of martial arts, there is no longer Peng, Tsai, Ji, An. Shapeless and Formless, the whole body is as if empty and porous.

無即有,我練拳時,什麼都沒有,到用時,碰我哪兒,哪都"有"。有即無,如練拳時追求這是 棚,那是捋,意念從哪兒到哪兒,追求"有"處處揪著心,拿著勁兒,要求"有"結果到用的時候什 麼都沒有,"有"即無.

When you don’t pursue, then you can achieve. When I practice martial art, I do not want of anything. 

When the situation arises and requires “it,” then I can have “it.” 

Therefore, “having it” becomes “nothingness.” If you try to figure out what is Peng, what is Tsai, your mind (Yi) focus will be everywhere, so preoccupied with “getting it” that you are holding your Jin, and for the want of “it,” you get nothing. “Wanting it” thus causes you to lose “it.”

盤架子,不能用意去追(求什麼)。

Therefore, when practicing, do not look to “get something.”

(十六)太極拳功夫有兩個部分 ­­ 知己之功和知彼之功

(Sixteen) There are two parts in Tai Chi Chuan Gong Fu: Understanding Yourself and Understanding the Others.

編者按:汪永泉老師根據前人的傳授,自己對太極拳內家拳性質的理解和教、練拳的經驗,明確 提出:太極拳功有知己之功和知彼之功兩個部分,並對它們各自的目的、要求、作用、練法和相 互關係作了詳細的講授。這對於學練太極拳的人來說是非常重要的。這樣可以更加明確個人學 拳的目的、方法、步驟,使習練收到更好的效果,防止"稀里糊塗""埋頭瞎練",甚至誤入歧途, 不但達不到預期的目的,還可能對身體健康產生不利的影響。
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Editor’s Note: the following insights as passed down from Wang Yongquan Laoshi’s elders through their experience with teaching and practicing Tai Chi Chuan: there are two separate parts to Tai Chi Chuan Gong Fu: the ability to understand yourself and the ability to understand others. Each one has their respective goals, requirements, applications, practice methods and their relationships must be taught carefully in details.

 This is very important to the practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan. Having a clear understanding of the goals, methods, footwork enhances the results of the practicing. It also prevents “lost and confused” and “practice blindly”, and even practice incorrectly. Not only do those conditions prevent you to achieve your goals, it may even affect your health negatively.

我的父親(汪崇祿)告訴我"練知己之功得太極勁兒;練知彼之功得‘中'”。

My father (Wang Chonglu) told me that “practice knowing yourself and you will gain the Tai Chi Jin; practice knowing others will learn to control their center.”

太極拳功夫有兩個部分:知己之功和知彼之功。

Tai Chi Chuan Gong Fu has two distinct skills: knowing yourself and knowing others.

知己之功:​培養自身內氣之功。具體功法是:松、散、通、空。通過盤架子,增強內氣,求得"全 身透空" "百病不生,健全體魄,延年益壽"。對練養生來說,知己之功也是養生功,求得到太極 勁兒,全身透空,百病不生。對練技擊來說,習練知己之功,為進行技擊打下基礎。知己之功​ 也是基礎功。

Knowing Yourself: it’s the practice of nourishing your Internal Qi. Its methods are: Soong, “dispersed”, porous/transparent, and empty. When you practice the forms, you increase your Internal Qi, and your “whole body becomes as if porous and empty” and “you will not get sick, increase constitution, and long life attained.” 

In terms of practicing for health, The gong fu of “knowing yourself” is a type of health practice. You gain the Tai Chi Jin, body being empty, and do not get sick. In terms of practicing for fighting, learning “knowing yourself” is the foundation work.

知彼之功:把太極勁兒用於對方身上進行技擊之功。具體功法是"聽"、"問"、"拿"、"放"。練知彼 之功最重要的是"得中"。知彼之功也稱技擊功。

Knowing Others: it is the gong fu of applying Tai Chi Jin on the opponent’s body in fighting. The specifics methods are “listen, ask, seize and let go” (Ting, Wen, Na, Fang). 

The most important aspect of practicing “knowing others” is learning to “capture the (opponent’s) center.” “Knowing others” is therefore a fighting skill.

必須具有知己之功的基礎,才能習練好知彼之功,忽視知己之功的習練,片面地去追求知彼之 功,只能得到招,不能得到術,沒有太極功夫。

First you must have a good foundation in “knowing yourself”, before practicing “knowing others”. 

If you neglect to practice for “knowing yourself,” and try to learn “knowing others,” you will only imitate the external moves, but not the inner methods, and will not gain Tai Chi Gong Fu.

練知己之功與練知彼之功相比,知己之功難練,知彼之功相對較易。
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If you compare learning “knowing yourself” and “knowing others,” it is more difficult to learn “knowing yourself,” and “knowing others” is easier in comparison.

練太極功夫要七分絆、知己之功,三分絆、知彼之功。

For Tai Chi practices, you should spend 70% in learning “knowing yourself,” and 30% in “knowing others.”

(十七) 養生與技擊 ­­ 兩種不同的練法

(Seventeen) For health or for fighting ­ two different training methods.

編者按:太極拳作為傳統的拳術,養生與技擊是不分的。汪老師根據時代發展的社會需求的變化 ,提出養生與技擊之不同及其相互關係。

Editor’s Note: Tai Chi Chuan is a traditional martial art, and it does not differentiate between practicing for health and practicing for fighting. To accommodate the changes in the modern society, Wang Laoshi explains that the differences and the relationship between practicing for health and practicing for fighting.

據編者的了解"養生拳架"和"技擊拳架"不是兩套不同的套路,而是指同一套路的兩種不同的練 法。

As the Editor understands it, “Tai Chi Form for health” and “Tai Chi Form for fighting” are not two different forms, but that one form practiced with two different methods.

汪老師提出,學練拳者,首先要根據自己的年齡、身體條件確定適合自己的練怯。特別強調練 養生的不要採用技擊的方法去練,否則不但達不到目的,還可能出偏差,不利健康。1981 年初 ,編者在齊一先生的指引下,去拜見汪永泉老師。見過禮之後,他第一句話問的是"你學拳的目 的是什麼?養生,還是技擊" ?編者回答"養生。 "他說"那你就一定要按照養生的方怯練,先不要 去追求技擊功夫。 "並叮囑我不要去與不怎麼會揉手(推手)的人去推,以免力碰力,損傷內氣。

 Wang Laoshi said, when you learn martial arts, you must decide based on your age and your health on which method is best for you. Especially important is that if you practice for health, do not also practice with the methods for practicing for fighting. 

Otherwise not only will you not accomplish your goal, but if you practice incorrectly, you will harm your health. In early 1981, Mr. Zhai introduced me (the editor) to learn from Wang Laoshi. 

After saying our pleasantries, the first question he asked me was “What is your goal in learning martial arts? For health or for fighting?” 

I replied, “for health.” He said, “then you must follow the methods for practicing for health. You must not follow the methods for fighting.” He also told me not to push hand with others that do not know how to push hand, so not to fight force with force, and thus harming my Internal Qi.

練太極拳,先要根據自己的年齡、體質、性格、環境和練功的發展,確定正確的目的。老年人 練拳多為延年益壽,年輕人則要求技擊。慢性病患者練拳為治療疾病,這也屬於養生一類。病 好了以後,也有改變了目的,追求技擊的。

When learning Tai Chi Chuan, first you must decide based on your age, your health, and the environment and martial progress on what the goal should be. Older folks should practice for
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health, and younger folks should aim for practice for fighting. If you are sick currently, practicing can help to improve your health. Once you are well, then you may change your goal, and practice for fighting.

現在流傳下來的太極拳,內容非常豐富,若經常習練,對身體確有很大好處。凡是練太極拳的
人,都有一定的要求,因為要求不同,所以練法不同。例如,養生和技擊這兩種不同的要求,
就有兩種不同的練法。在練習時必須把這兩種練法分清,否則就會在養生練法中求技擊,或在
技擊的練法中求養生,這樣練下去,不但達不到目的,還會起到副作用,走向岐途。

The Tai Chi Chuan we study today is a full system. If you practice diligently, it will benefit your body. Different practitioners have different goals. Since the goals are different, they should practice differently also. For example, practice for health and for fighting are two different goals. 

Therefore, they have different practice methods. When practicing, you must keep clear about the practice methods. Otherwise if you introduce “for health” methods into for fighting, or “for
fighting” methods into for health practices, then not only will you not able to reach your goals, you will get the opposite effect and go down the wrong path.

楊式太極拳的老前輩初到北京時,教前清一些子弟練太極拳。技擊的練法不合適,只教了養生 一套練法,而把技擊的拳架教給自家的子孫和徒弟。以後社會上所流傳的楊式太極拳就是養生 的一套。但有些人忽略了內功,只追求外形;有些人要用養生的拳架去練技擊,把太極拳練得走 了樣,無奇不有。這樣既不能很好地養生,也不能用以技擊。當然在一定情況下,也可以用以 技擊,但用的只是招,沒有術。

When the Yang Elders first went to Beijing, they taught the Qing Imperials Tai Chi Chuan. Since it was not appropriate to teach the fighting methods, they only taught the health methods, and reserved the fighting methods to their offsprings and indoor students. 

Therefore, the common Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan is the health methods. However, some people ignore the Neigong (Internal Practices), and only follow the forms; there are also people who use the “for health” forms to practice for fighting, 
making their Tai Chi Chuan all wrong, “nothing is too strange” {translator: anything goes}. 

In this way, it is no good for health, and it cannot be used for fighting. Under this situation, when you fight, you only have the outward appearance, without the inner methods.

現在流行太極拳架的每一個姿勢、動作,本來都是應敵之招。在理論上也不外乎如何使用招與
術而戰胜對方。所以,通過一個時期的練習使自然走向技擊的途徑。就養生的意義,太極拳這
套技擊的套路中,也包括養生的一面。要想在技擊的套路中找養生的練法,就必須把技擊與養
生兩種不同的練法分辨清楚,否則就不能達到自己練拳的目的和要求。

With the common Tai Chi Chuan, every posture and movement has an application for fighting an opponent. The theory is also about how to use the forms and the methods to win over the others.

 Therefore, after a period of study you will naturally gain fighting skills. In terms of nourishing health, Tai Chi Chuan postures and forms also contain health beneficial practices. 

Therefore, if you want to find the health practices from the fighting form, you must separate the two practices clearly. Otherwise, you will not reach your goals in practicing martial art.
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練拳有技擊與養生兩種不同的練法。學練者要考慮自己的身體的強弱,是否忠過慢性病以及病 的類型等情況,採取不同的練法。在練習養生的拳架當中,如果還有技擊的身形、手勢,則本 身的內功(神、意、氣)就得不到舒適通暢,內氣也就得不到增長,達不到養生的目的。練技擊 的拳架,如果沒有充實盈滿的內功配合,技擊的身形、手勢;就得不到輕靈變化、得心應手、運 用自如。這就說明技擊與養生是分不開的。但是在鍛煉時,先要分清練習方法,然後再結合到 一起,才不致有"傷"。

Practicing martial art for fighting and for health require two different training methods. The practitioner must determine based on their own body strength, and whether they are suffering from disease etc., and choose the right method.

 When you are training to improve health, if any posture, gesture or movement causes discomfort in your neigong (Shen, Yi and Qi), then it will not increase your Internal Qi, and thus will not accomplish the goal of improving health. 

When practicing for fighting, if your neigong does not feel full, then your postures and movements lack the light and agile feeling and the ability to change (輕靈變化), nor will you be able to “express in the hands whatever the heart desires” (得心應手), and the movements would be natural. 

Thus it is said that while you cannot separate the martial and the health (in a form), but when you practice, you must differentiate the practice methods. Then you can combine them, and thus will not cause “harm” (to your Internal Qi).

為什麼拳架套路中沒有把養生與技擊詳細分開來學?要知道,在練習時一動之中就有技擊與養生 的練法,所以必須先懂了理論,自己在練習之中去分析。只有在練習中去找,才能得到要領。 

So why is that there are no separate forms to learn practicing for health and practicing for fighting? You need to know that the same movement contains both methods for fighting and for health nourishing. Once you understand the theory, then you can separate it in your practice. 

You must find through your own practice, the true nature of each method.

老年人練養生拳架怎麼練?

How should older folks practice for health nourishing?

老年人練太極拳,一般以養生為目的,練養生架子,即太極拳的養生練法,也叫養生功。學練 的內容,是知己之功。老人練知己之功,同青年人以技擊為目的的練知己之功,練法上有所不 同,需要特別注意以下幾點。

When older folks practice Tai Chi Chuan, you must focus on nourishing your health. When you practice the health form ­ that is, practice Tai Chi Chuan with health nourishing methods, it is called the Gong (fu) of nourishing health. 

When you practice for internal understanding, it is the “knowing yourself” practice. Older folks practice “knowing yourself,” and younger people focus on fighting practicing for “knowing yourself,” involve different methods. You must be aware of the following points.

思想上要明確自己的目的是養生,學練中要堅守這一點。要毫無迎敵之意,不要自覺不自覺地 夾雜著技擊的練法,追求技擊功夫。切忌和不懂內功的年輕人去揉(推)手,否則以力對力、互 相頂牛、較勁,要傷內氣,不利養生,有害身體健康。

You must understand that your main goal is to nourish your health, you must keep this in mind when you practice. You cannot think of fighting another person, and subconsciously mix in
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methods for fighting. You must avoid to push hand (rubbing hand) with young people that don’t know Internal gong. Otherwise it will become use force against force, to see who is the strongest (cow), testing strength. This will hurt your internal Qi. This will not nourish your life, but rather harm your health.

練養生架子要注重培養內氣。要弄清楚怎樣能"養"(內氣),怎樣練則"傷"(內氣)。要善於"養",避 免"傷"。

When practicing forms, you must focus on nourishing the Internal Qi. You must be clear what are “nourishing” (to the Internal Qi), and what can “do harm” (to the Internal Qi). You must emphasize to be “nourishing,” and avoid “doing harm.”

要全身放鬆,無一處僵滯。松、散、圓就能使意氣得到靜養。最重要的是"心氣"放鬆,排除一 切私心雜念,追求"無"的境界。要懷著消閒愉快地心情練拳,不要思想緊張地去苦練,不要追 功夫。練拳要像玩,要那麼輕鬆。不要自己和自己較勁。

The whole body must be Soong, without stiffness anywhere. Soong, “dispersed,” and round would let the Yi and Qi become quiet and nourishing. The most important is to let your “Heart Qi” {translator: i.e. your thoughts} be Soong, removing any extraneous thoughts, and entering the stage of “nothingness.”

神、意、氣內舍。內捨不是來,只是不通出體外。意氣運行從"中心” “達於四圍"到手心、腳心為 止,再從手心、腳心回到"中心"。手腳有了氣感就可以了。眼神要平視"視而不見"不隨手的動作 走;或內視丹田。眼神不能遠放,更不能只放不收。否則易"傷"。

Collect your Shen, Yi, and Qi inside, and do not let them come out of your body. Yi and Qi move to “center” (“your heart”) and “reach out to four corners” and stop at your palms and bottom of your feet. Then travel back from the palms and feet back to “the heart.” 

Just feel the Qi in your hand and feet are sufficient. The eyes should look levelly with “half focus.” Do not look at your hands when you move; nor should your eyes focused inward at your Dantian. Don’t focus too far away, and should not only look far and not look close. Otherwise it will “do harm.”

注重神意氣運行通暢。要"以心行氣,以氣運身","用意不用力"切忌用拙力,用意則"養",用力則" 傷"。練拳要使內氣依靠外形動作得到舒暢而增長,外形依靠內氣供給而舒展。二者互相配合而 養生。要以內氣支配外形動作,不能以外形動作拽內氣的供給。感到內氣不夠用,就不要強求 去練。在任何情況丁,都要保持內氣的開合自如,運行通暢順達,不能因受姿勢的束縛而使內 氣運行受阻不暢。

Make sure that the Yi and Qi move smoothly without blockage. “Use your heart (i.e. mind) to mobilize the Qi, and use the Qi to move the body,” and “use Yi and not force.”

 You nust not use brute force. Using Yi is “nourishing,” using force “do harm.” 

When practicing, your Internal Qi must follow the external movements such that it feels comfortable and extending. The external movements rely on the Internal Qi for “supply” and motion.

 The two working together is nourishing. Use the Internal Qi to control the external movements, and not use the external actions to “pull” and support the Internal Qi. 

If you feel your Internal Qi is running out, then do not force to train further. Under all circumstances, you must keep the Internal Qi movement natural, movements smooth, and do not let postures that are difficult to perform to block the Internal Qi
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and restrict its flow.

在練習套路時,在外部動作上要注意每個姿勢都要不追、不貪、不過、不散。如果違背了這四 項要求,就會使姿勢走向極限或失中,使意氣停滯不通。動作不要超出自己的氣圈,不能"開中 開" (即開了以後,沒有收回到中心,接著又開,這是練習技擊的一種動作)。不要勉強追求自己 意氣、體能達不到的姿勢要求。動作不能猛開、猛合、驟然變換,否則使內氣波動過大雨中斷 ,有傷內氣。打拳要注意意氣通暢,如行雲流水,滔滔不絕,連綿不斷,這樣才能養生。

When practicing the form, externally be sure that each posture is not extended, not closed­in, not too fast, and not too lazy. If these four rules are not followed, then the postures are not correct, and make the Yi and Qi stagnant. 

Motion should not exceed your own “Qi Ring,” and not “Open then Open” (that is, after opening, instead of withdraw it back, you open again, as making one movement in your practice). Do not use beyond your Yi and Qi reserve and try to do postures that are impossible. Movements should not be done fiercely, neither open nor close, no sudden change. Otherwise, your Internal Qi will rouse like torrential rainstorm stopped suddenly, and harm the Internal Qi. Martial art should maintain smoothness with Yi and Qi. Like the cloud moving or water flowing, flowing smoothly without ending, continuously without break, then it will nourish your health.

青年人追求技擊功夫如何練?要按照要求學練知己之功和知彼之功。這裡著重講兩點。

How should younger folks practice to gain fighting gong fu? Follow the methods of “knowing yourself” and “knowing others.” Here are two points to emphasize.

要得太極勁兒。思想上要明確自己練的是內家拳的技擊功夫。楊式太極拳技擊功夫的特點是運 用內功,在對方身上變點、變勁兒,進行擊發。要招術結合,以術為主。不能只有招,沒有 術。術是神、意、氣的運用。先要通過練知己之功求得太極勁兒,打好基礎,才能練術。

To get the Tai Chi Jin, you must understand that you are practicing the fighting gong fu of internal martial art. 

The special feature of Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan fighting gong fu is the use of the internal gong, changing the focus on the opponent’s body and changing their Jin, so that you can hit (發 ­ Fa / “explode”, as in Fajin) them. You must have both the external postures and the underlying methods (招術), with emphasis on the underlying application. 

You must not only focus on the outward appearance and have no understanding of the inner basis. The underlying method comes from using Shen, Yi and Qi. You must first learn the “knowing yourself” to obtain the Tai Chi Jin, and build a strong foundation, before you can learn the underlying methods.

年青人一般身體強壯,精力充沛,練起拳來不免要用拙力。要在練習之中逐步減少拙力,增長 以神、意、氣為​內容的勁兒,就是通常說的去後天之力,增先天之力。這是一個較長時期的練 習過程,比較難練。有些練拳的,忽視這種練習,是難以得到太極拳技擊功夫的。

Since the younger practitioners are strong and full of energy, you must avoid using brute force. When you practice, use less and less brute force, and cultivate Shen, Yi and Qi into the Internal Jin.

 This is known as using the post ­heaven force, to increase the pre ­heaven force. Since it takes a long time to achieve, it’s very difficult to accomplish. If you forget this in your practice, you will have difficulty obtaining the Tai Chi Chuan fighting gong fu.
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神、意、氣要能通出體外,並能回到體內。把神、意、氣通出體外,這是技擊練法不同於養生 練法的最主要之點。意氣通出體外,能"穿透"對方身體。要注意,意氣通出後,一定要沿原路 收回,進行"內外氣交換"增強功力。如果不收回,就要傷內氣。

Shen, Yi and Qi can be projected outside your body, but be sure to collect them back inside your body. Projecting Shen, Yi and Qi outside your body is the main difference between fighting and practicing for nourishing health. When your Yi and Qi are projected outside, they may “penetrate” your opponent’s body. 

Remember that once projected, the Yi and Qi must return via the original path, so that the “internal and external Qi can exchange and transform” and increase your skills. If the Shen and Qi do not return, then it harms the Internal Qi.

自己的意氣是不是通出體外了,要問對方。在初級階段,與對方一搭手,對方感到不過,就說 明內氣達到對方身上了。以後經過學練,逐步能"聽"、"問"、"拿"、"放"用意氣發人,進行技
擊。

To find out whether your Yi and Qi are projected outside your body, you may ask your opponent. When you first study and touch hand with your opponent, they may feel uncomfortable. Thus it is clear that the Internal Qi has reached their body. 

After you practice and improve, then you can use “listen, ask, seize, and let go” (Ting, Wen, Na, Fang) and use Yi and Qi to 發 (Fa, “explode,” i.e. Fajin) as the basis of your fighting skills.

(十八)練太極拳的七個要求和步驟

(Eighteen) The Seven Main Requirements and Steps of Learning Tai Chi Chuan

編者按:編者在跟汪老師學拳時,得到他講授的《太極拳的技擊與養生》的資料。它的內容十分 豐富,涉及面很廣。其中有些摘編人本書其他專題語錄中。這裡把其中練太極拳的"七種練習方 法和步驟"摘錄如下。其中有些地方根據自己的記錄作了補充。

Editor’s Note: During the time I (the editor) learned martial arts from Wang Laoshi, I obtained the information for the book <Tai Chi Chuan for Fighting and Health Nourishing>. The content is very rich, covering many topics. 

Other people have since excerpted portions of the materials and quotations. Listed in the following are the “Seven Study Methods and Steps” for learning Tai Chi Chuan. I have also added materials to fill out missing parts.

1. 練太極拳的第一個要求是,上下相隨,動無一處不動

One. The first requirement in learning Tai Chi Chuan is to coordinate (harmonize) the upper and lower (of your body). When you move, every part moves.

上下相隨就是由頭頂至足心,把身形調直,使意氣下沉至腹腔,再鬆散舒送至四肢,相連起來 ,上下一體,保持中正安舒,再開始運動拳架。兩手心與足心,上下相隨,協調一致。
 Coordinate upper and lower means that from the top of your head to the bottom your feet, your body should be straight.

 Yi and Qi sink to the abdominal, then Soong to four limbs, connecting together, the upper and lower body, keeping straight, center and comfortable, then you may start the form. 

The palms and the bottom of your feet, upper and bottom coordinate, moving in harmony.
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前進、後退時平送腰跨,身體垂直平行移動,如同船上的攏桿一樣。不能低頭貓腰,左右搖 擺。 不能打"半截拳"只動上半身,要上下相隨。練習時可以把手臂放下,不動手勢,只動身形;也可 以在行進中暫時停下來,放下手臂,檢查身形動得如何,是否符合要求。

Step forward or backward, the waist (腰跨, yao and the kua) should be level (and not move up and down or tilted). The body moves levelly, like the boat’s 攏桿 (possibly an old term for the mast pole). You should not duck your head or “wriggle” like a cat, nor swinging left and right. You should not do “half body fist” and only use your upper body, you must coordinate the upper and lower body. 

When practicing, you may put your arms down, and not use your arm in your postures and just move your body; or you may stop and pause from time to time , put down your arms, and check whether your body is in agreement with the requirements.

2. 練太極擎的第二個要求是:內外相合

Two. The Second Requirement is to Harmonize the Inner with Outer.

內氣與外形相結合。每個姿勢都必須有內氣的供給,把內氣貫穿到姿勢中去。以意導氣,以氣 運身。外形運動由內氣支配,不能外形動作拽內氣的供給。這個問題要弄清楚,否則就會產生 各種毛病,影響身體健康。

The Internal Qi and external movement must be harmonious. Every posture should be mobilized and sustained by the Internal Qi. Let the Internal Qi goes through every posture. 

Use Yi to lead Qi, use Qi to move the body. external movement is controlled by the Internal Qi, and do not have the external movement actions to “pull” and support the Internal Qi. You must be very clear on this point. 

Otherwise, you will get all sort of ailments, affecting your health.

只有外形動作,只是掄胳臂、踢腿,不是練太極舉。內外相合,內氣與姿勢不要互相等待、互 不配合。內三合(神、意、氣相合)、外三合(手與腳合,肩與跨合,肘與膝合),內外相合,做不 到這個要求,則一輩子也練不好太極拳。

If there are only external movements, only moving arms or kicking, that’s not practicing Tai Chi Chuan. The Internal and External must harmonize, the Internal Qi and the movements must be coordinated and match with each other. 

There are 3 Inner Harmonies (Shen, Yi and Qi are harmonized), and 3 External Harmonies (harmonizing hands and feet, shoulders and kua (hip regions), elbows and knees). 

If you cannot harmonize the Internal and External, even if you spend a lifetime practicing, you will not have the Tai Chi Chuan skills.

3. 練太極拳的第三個要求是: 內外相合的上下相合

Three. Inner and Outer in Harmony, and Upper and Lower in Harmony.

內外相合,還要保持第一個要求:上下相隨。

Inner and outer in harmony, please refer to the first point of “Coordinate the Upper and Lower Body.”

4. 第四個要求是:拆架子

Four. Break Down the Postures
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太極拳架是前人把各種應敵之招綜合起來編成的套路。不論哪一種套路都不是固定不變的,在 練習中,可以根據需要改。但必須遵循理論的要求進行練習,才能練出功夫。

Tai Chi Chuan forms were created by the Elders from stringing together fighting techniques and postures. Regardless the form set, it’s not true that they cannot be changed. When you practice, you may change it according to your needs. 

However, you must follow the requirements of the theory and principles, for the gong fu to improve.

可以專門練"棚架子"、"捋架子"、"擠架子"...。即一套架子,每個姿勢、動作只練一種勁兒。每 個姿勢都是"樁"。可以單獨練一個姿勢,也可以把幾個姿勢組合起來練習。養生架和技擊架是 同一拳架,只是練法要求不同。[詳見本篇"(十七)養生與技去 ­­ 兩種不同的練法"]

You can practice only the “Peng posture”, “Lu posture”, “T’sai posture” etc. That is, in each form set, each posture and movement can be used to develop your Jin. 

Each posture can be used for “pole” practice (i.e. “standing pole” or Zhan Zhuang). You may practice with just one posture, or combine several of them together to practice. Practice to nourish health is the same form set as practicing for fighting, it’s only the practicing methods that are different. [ Please refer to “(Seventeen) 

For health or for fighting ­ two different training methods” in this book for details.

5. 第五個要求是:拆手

The fifth requirement is to “understand” your hands (deconstructing your hand forms)

練知己之功的拳架時,都是用手做出姿勢,指出方向,領出內氣的去路,所以姿勢練得正確與
否,和內氣練得舒暢得意與否,均表現在手勢上。手必須變換靈活,隨機應變,不要有規矩和
固定的姿勢。手無定像,但有它一定的活動範圍,不是亂動。要保證在任何動作中都要按照養
生的原理,掌握養和散的道理,而掌握的好壞,全在於手。

When practicing the form to “know yourself,” the hands are part of the postures, fingers pointing to different directions, leading the Internal Qi to project out. 

Therefore whether your movements and postures are correct and whether your Internal Qi flows comfortably and smoothly, these can be seen in your hand forms. The hands must be able to “quick to change,” agile, lively, changing in reaction to the circumstances, and not based on some fixed positions or responses. 

The hands are not static, but they must be moved with care, and not waving around randomly. Ensure that every move follows the rules of health nourishing, and your hands reflect the theory of health nourishment and fighting principles. Your hands determine whether your techniques are good or not.

練知彼之功時,手史重要。與對方一接手就要求聽、懂、化、問。這些功夫是無形的,叫做"術 "。手必須掌握術的功夫,才能做到輕靈變化無窮。把功夫練到手上,這叫"功夫上手"。以後逐 漸達到拳譜所說的階及神明(就是融​會貫通的最高階段)。這樣,與對方一接手,就能先覺察到 對方的動向,這叫做"懂勁兒"。

When practice “to know others,” the hand forms are very important. As soon as you touch hand, you must be able to “listen, understand, neutralize, and ask” (聽、懂、化、問). This type of gong fu cannot be seen from the outside, and is called “inner methods” (術). The hands must have the gong­fu of the fighting hands, then they can be agile, lively, easy to change without limits.
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When the gong fu is in the hand, it is known as “Gong Fu Goes to the Hand.” Continuing to practice will gain what is called in Martial Arts Manuals “Shen Ming” 神明 (i.e. the highest level of understanding). This way, as soon as you touch hand, you can detect the other person’s movement and intention, this is called “Understanding Jin.”

6. 第六個要求是:分勁兒

Sixth Requirement: Deconstructing Jin

[詳見本篇"(十)勁兒是神意氣的化合,不是神意氣的集中"]

[ Please see “(Ten) Neijin Is Harmonizing Shen Yi Qi, and Not Concentrating Shen Yi Qi” in this book ]

7. 第它個要求是:入化境

Seven. “Enlightenment”

{Translator: 入化境 is literally “entering a transformed stage”}

入化境,這是練拳達到的高級境界。要達到這一境界,先要把練習太極拳的種種要求和方法熟 練精通,逐步做到虛實分清、上下相隨、內外相合、招術分清、開合分清。還要把姿勢與勁兒 分清,如己和知彼分清"養"與"傷"分清。把以上有形的練、法分清以後再融合在一起,化於無形 ,若有若無,有即是無、無即是有。守規矩而脫規矩,脫規矩而合規短。練到這個地步,才能 達到空虛無滯、動靜自如、無形無象、全體透空。這樣,心性自然得到保養,百病不生,延年 益壽。只有經過長時間的鍛煉以後,才能體會入化境的奧妙。這是很難用筆墨來表達的。只有 經過心恃口授,才能得到。

“Enlightenment,” is the highest level of martial arts practice. To enter this stage, you must know and understand fully the requirements and methods of Tai Chi Chuan, and can clearly differentiate empty and full, coordinate the upper and lower body, the inner and outer harmonies, understand the outer posture and the inner methods, and understand opening and closing. 

You can also differentiate postures and Jin, and know what are “harmful” and what can “nourish health.” You first practice with fixed forms, once you gain the understand and break it up you can put them together, and form becomes formless. 

If you “have” (the skills), then you do not have it. To have is the same as not having. Not having is the same as having. Following the rules is the same as breaking them, and breaking rules are the same as following them. When you reach this stage, you will then be completely empty, tranquil and comfortable, formless and shapeless, the body as if transparent. 

Then, your mind and body will be in good health, you will not get sick easily, and increase your lifespan. It’s only after practicing for a long time before you may enter this stage. It’s very difficult to explain in writings and words, and you must get hands ­on transmission to understand.

(十九)隨時隨地練動夫

(Nineteen) Practice Anytime Anywhere

編者按:練太極拳功夫的方式、方能有幾種,如站樁、盤架子、練單式、揉手、大捋、練劍、練 刀、練槍,等等。對這些,汪永泉老師都進行過詳細的講授,其中有很多獨到之處。此外,他
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還教了一種重要的練功方能:在日常生活中隨時隨地練功。主要是指太極拳的基礎功 ­­知己之 功。所謂隨時隨地練功,不是整天比劃太極拳的姿勢,而是在日常活動中註意使自己的身心狀 態符合太極拳的基本要求。這樣使練功的時間增加了幾倍, 使太極拳的基本要求成為自己的習慣 狀態,像是身體的一種本能。這很有利於功夫的增長。如果一個人平時經常處在與太極拳功夫 要求相背離的狀態,如心浮氣躁、精神萎靡、低頭貓腰、縮脖聳肩、凹胸駝背、氣捅心際、僵 滯、全身緊縮、自己跟 自己較勁,也許不一定很嚴重、很典型,只是一種傾向、一點毛病,但這對練功是有不利影響 的。


Editor’s Note: There are many different methods to practice Tai Chi Chuan: standing pole, empty hand forms, single posture, rubbing (pushing) hand, (sparring), sword forms, dao forms, spear forms, etc. 

For each of these, Wang Yongquan Laoshi has explained them in details, pointing out many unique features. Besides these, he also taught a very important practice method: practice anytime anywhere as you go through your days. The most important foundational work in Tai Chi Chuan is “knowing yourself.” 

Therefore, practice anytime anywhere does not refer to spending all days doing Tai Chi Chuan postures and forms, but then throughout the day, pay attention to ensure that your body and mental states are in accordance with the Tai Chi Chuan requirements.

This increases the amount time you practice, and incorporate the Tai Chi Chuan basic requirements into your daily routines, becoming instinctive in your body. This increases your gong fu. If a person normally has the opposites of the Tai Chi Chuan gong fu requirements, such as impatient often, listless and lethargic, head low and slumped waist, neck sunk and droopy shoulders, hunch back, Qi stagnate and the mind wander, stiff and tense, then when they practice, they will not take it seriously nor do the forms correctly. This is incorrect and will not improve your skills.


編者曾留心觀察汪永泉老師日常生活中體現的太極功夫,很受教益。例如,他在等候電影開映 時,端正坐在座位上,不靠椅背,身體正直,不彎腰,兩肩自然下垂,手放在大腿上,神態寧 靜自若,神意內含都符合太極拳的基本要求:如"松靜"、"松沉直豎"、"中正安舒"、"鬆肩闊背"、" 氣沉丹田"、"輕鬆腰膀",等等。這與周圍其他人的狀況是大不一樣的。他這種狀態,不是有意 地練功,而是經過幾十年的修煉,功夫"上身"習慣成自然了。再如,他在戶外站立著說拳,聊 天時,常常做"平送腰跨"的動作,兩臂自然下垂,隨身前後移動而擺動。此外,他在坐著、躺 著身體不動的情況下,經常練一種"意念功"意想一個小氣球在周身沿經絡運行,有時感到阻滯 ,球退後再向前通....."隨時隨地練功夫"為我們拓寬了練功的思路,指出一條常為人忽視的練功 途徑。編者按照指點去實踐,受益匪淺。

The Editor observed that Wang Yongquan Laoshi showed that he was “practicing” in his daily routines. For example, when he was waiting for a movie to start, he sat straight in the chair. He did not lean, the body straight, the waist was not slumped. 

The elbows were naturally downward, with hands on the thighs. His composure was tranquil and serene. His Shen and Yi were harmonized according to Tai Chi Chuan basic principles: Soong and Tranquil, Soong Sunk and Straight, Centered and comfortable, Soong shoulders and smooth back, Qi Sink to Dantian, Soong and light Yao etc. etc. 

His demeanor was very differently from the people around him. He was not intentionally practicing his gong fu, but it’s from many years of diligent practice, the gong fu “goes to the body” and became part of him naturally. Also, when he was standing around

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teaching, when he was just chatting, he often did “平送腰跨” movement. The elbows were naturally hanging, the body moves back and forth, shifting and swinging. When he was sitting, or lying down and not moving, he would practice “Yi gong” of imaging a small Qi ball moving through the body’s meridians. 

If he felt that there were blockage, he would move the ball back and moved it forward until it cleared...... “Practice anytime anywhere” broadens our perspectives on practicing gong fu, pointing out an often ignored method of practicing. 

I, the Editor has practiced according to this advice, and I have seen the benefits.

練功夫,不能只限於打拳,在日常生活中,包括工作、學習、看電視、幹活兒、休息、散步 ......,無論坐、立、臥、行都要練功夫,留意太極拳的要求,使這些要求在自己身上成了刁 慣。如果只在盤架子時按太極拳的要求練,而平時在生活中經常背離,則功夫進步慢,而且不 易鞏固。到揉手時,臨時現找某種感覺,來不及。

Practicing gong fu is not limited to forms and sparring. In your daily life, including working, learning, watching TV, doing physical labor, resting, walking....., regardless whether you are sitting, standing, lying down, or walking, you need to practice gong fu according to the Tai Chi Chuan requirements. 

So that the requirements become part of your instinct. If you only practice according to the principles when you are doing the forms, but then do the opposites in your daily routines, then the progress will be slow, and hard to consolidate (your learning). 

Even in doing Rubbing Hand, you will always be chasing for the right feeling, being always “too late.”

隨時隨地練功夫,要在"有意無意之間"只要稍稍留意就夠了,不要意念重,刻意去追功夫。 如何體會、習練"氣沉丹田"、"輕鬆腰跨"?平時坐在板凳上休息,感到自然、舒服就可以了。如 何體會、習練邁步前進的"虛實變換"、"輕鬆自如"? 休閒散步,自然而然地走就可以了。

 Practice anytime anywhere, do it when you are “thinking but not thinking” about it, do not focus too much, otherwise you will lose your gong fu. 

How do you practice “Qi Sink to Dantian,” and “Lightly Soong the Yao and Kua?” When you are naturally sitting on the bed to relax, feeling natural and comfortable, that is sufficient. 

How do you practice the advanced “Changing of the Empty and Full ,” and “Lightly Soong and Natural?” 

When you are strolling relaxedly, just walk naturally and you will get it.
*********
目錄 Table of Content
序.........
編者的話..........
上篇汪永泉先生搜拳語錄... Part I ­ Mr. Wang Yongquan’s Oral Transmission on Martial Arts...... •
一、總論 General Introduction ..................... 2
(一)武德為先 Wu De is of Utmost Important ............. ........ 2
( 二)老師"訪"學生要三年,學生"訪"老師要三年............... 3
(三)教拳先教武德....... ...................................... ...... 3
(囚)虛心向前輩、同輩、晚輩請教... ...... ... ...... ... ......... 3
(五) 揉手要有正確的目的....................................... . .. 3 (六〉楊式太極拳的特點­一舒服、得意、大方............ 4
page 31

(七)必須有一定的理論作指導.................................... 5 (八)路子正,方法對.............................. ... ............... 6 (九)楊式太極拳屬內家拳一一注重內功... '" ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 (十)內勁是神意氣的化合,不是神意氣的集中... '" ... ... ... 7 (十一)練拳主要是煉神、意、氣................................. 8 (十二)意氣為君,骨肉為臣....................................... 9 (十三)注重"養",避免"傷"......................... .., ••• ••• 10 (十四)性命雙修... ...... ... ... ...... ...... ............ ..... .......... 12 (十五〕追求無的境界............................................ .... 13 (十六)太極拳功夫有兩個部份一一知己之功和知彼之功... 13 〈十七)養生與技擊­一兩種不同的練法..................... 15 (十八)練太極拳的七個要求和步驟.............................. 19 (十九)隨時隨地練功夫............................................ . 22 二、知己之功一一­松、散、通、空......................... ..24 (一〉松............ .... .................................. ................. 24 (二)散................................................ .................. 27 (三)通........................................................ ......... .28 (四)空............................................... ....... ............29 (五)虛靈頂勁........................................... ............. .29 (六)開胸張肘、鬆肩闊背....................... ................... 30 (七)氣沉丹田不是氣壓丹田...................................... .32 (八)輕鬆腰騰................................................ ......... 33 (九〉鬆垂散尾間.......................................... ............ 35 (十〉長三關豎三關............................................... .36 (十一)臂如鞭繩............ ... ....... ... ................... ...........36 (十二)靈活腕手................................................. ..... 37 (十三〉圓襠松膝.................... ........................ ..........39 (十四)腳,心吻地........................................... ........... 39 (十五)松沉直豎,中正安舒............................. ..........40 (十六〉呼吸自然.................................................. .... 41 (十七)開合任自由............................................ ....... 41 (十八〉動作走螺旋.............. ................................. ....43 (十九)姿勢運行有四個步驟.......................................43 (二十)外形動作要為內氣運行開道............................. .45 (二十一)功夫須從架子出..........................................49 (二十二〉練太極劍須知...... ... ... ......•........ ...............49 (二十三)練太極刀須知... ........................................ ..50 三、知彼之功一一"昕"、"問"、"拿"、"放".................. 51 (一) "聽"、"問"、"拿"、"放"是術不是招........................ 51 (二) "聽............................... .....•............ ...... 52
(三) "問"................................................ ...... .53
(囚) "拿............................................... ∙.............. .54
(五) "放"............................................................... m
page 32

(六〉接手意在先... ... ... ... ...•.. ... ........................ ......... 56 (七)刺皮不刺骨........................................... ........... 57 (八)發勁兒須知............................................. ........ .58
(九) "拿" "中"要聽對方十字的變動..............................61
(十) "中心"與"重心"要分清..................... ......... ... ..... . ... 61
(十一)要點不要面................. ................................ ..63 (十二)一接點中求.......................................... ......... 64 (十三)求側................................................ ........ .65 (十四)勁兒走弧形線一一"棗核、杏核..................'... ..67
(十五)發勁兒"有球"、"有線"............... ...... ......... ... .. .... 68 (十六)內線、外線和中線......................................... .69 (十七)勁兒要旋轉前進......................................... . .............................70
(十/飛)引進落空...... ...... ............ ...... ...... ....... .................................. 71 (十九)定和斷............................................. ............ 73 (二十)發勁兒是一鬆不是一緊................. ...................74 (二十一)勁兒最後要走平......................................... .77 (二十一)攻擊點根據對方勁源確定........... ...................78
(二十二)拿、打1/3 ......... ................................ ..........79 (二十四)變點打勁源.................................... .... ...............................80 (二十五)實中求虛,以虛帶實............ ... ... ... ..•... ... ... ... 81
(二十六)以散打"散........... ................................ .....82 (二十七〉以"中"碰"中...................................... .... ......85
(二十八)功夫上手................. ............................ ......87 (二十九〉用"氣球"崩人....................................... ......89 (三十)招術兼備,才能勝人...................................... .92​ (三十一)九曲珠................................................ ...... 93 (三十二)八種勁法的本質是內氣................................ .95
(三十三〉棚勁兒............ ...... ...... ............ ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...,. þ.... ...... ...... .... ....... 95 (三十四)捋勁兒................................................ ..... .96​ (三十五)擠勁兒...................................­........ .......... .97​ (三十六)按勁兒............................................ .......... 97 (三十七)採勁兒............................................ ..........98 (三十八)例勁兒................................................ ...... 98
(三十九)肘勁兒................................... ......... ..........99 (四十)靠勁兒................................................. ....... .99​ (四十一〉穆勁兒.......................................... ............ 99 (四十二)順勁兒.............................................. ..... 100 (四十三)彈簧勁兒................................................ 100 (四十四)踏勁兒................................................... 101 (四十五) <<三十字訣》...... .................................... 101 (四十六)亂環訣.............................................. ..... 109 下篇汪永泉先生拳照................ 一、拳照............................................................... 112
二、金IJ 照............................................................... 126 三、師徒合影............................................. ............ 四、生活照............................................................ 131 附錄........................................................................ m 一、汪傳楊式太極拳、劍、刀、槍譜..................... 134 (一)太極拳名目............................................ ....... 134 (二)太極劍名目
(三)太極刀歌訣∙
(四)四刀贊.............
(五)太極槍法∙ 二、太極拳經典拳論............................................. 136 三、楊家太極功夫軼事......... 後記................................................. ....

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